Le marketing : quelle contribution au bien commun ?
Partons d’un constat : le marketing est né pour servir l’entreprise capitaliste et le développement de ses marchés. Le but ultime étant la création de richesses et, par ricochet, le bien-être des populations.
Un ensemble d’outils marketing ont été créés pour accompagner les enjeux de performance économique des entreprises. Reprenant les travaux de Jean-Claude Moisdon (Du mode d’existence des outils de gestion, les instruments de gestion à l’épreuve de l’organisation), ces outils/techniques jouent trois grands rôles : un rôle d’investigation du fonctionnement organisationnel (le degré et les modalités d’acceptation des outils par un environnement donnent à voir les règles de fonctionnement de celui-ci, en contrepartie de quoi, il est possible de construire des outils adaptés au contexte), un rôle d’accompagnement du changement (ils incarnent les activités des acteurs et leur fournissent des supports pour se coordonner et partager le sens), un rôle d’exploration du nouveau (l’appropriation des outils peut ouvrir de nouveaux champs des possibles en termes d’usages, de création).
Dès lors, la conception d’outils marketing est indissociable de la transformation du système dans lequel ils viennent s’insérer. Les outils sont au cœur d’une tension paradoxale : ils sont instruments de conformation et, en même temps, créateurs de sens.
Ils contribuent ...
A FRIEND OF a friend of ours is a frequent business traveler. Let’s call him Dave. Dave was recently in Atlantic City for an important meeting with clients. Afterward, he had some time to kill before his flight, so he went to a local bar for a drink.
He’d just finished one drink when an attractive woman approached and asked if she could buy him another. He was surprised but flattered. Sure, he said. The woman walked to the bar and brought back two more drinks— one for her and one for him. He thanked her and took a sip. And that was the last thing he remembered.
Rather, that was the last thing he remembered until he woke up, disoriented, lying in a hotel bathtub, his body submerged in ice. He looked around frantically, trying to figure out where he was and how he got there. Then he spotted the note:
DON’T MOVE. CALL 911.
A cell phone rested on a small table beside the bathtub. He picked it up and called 911, his fingers numb and clumsy from the ice. The operator seemed oddly familiar with his situation. She said, “Sir ...
Six Principles of Sticky Ideas
PRINCIPLE 1: SIMPLICITY
How do we find the essential core of our ideas? A successful defense lawyer says, “If you argue ten points, even if each is a good point, when they get back to the jury room they won’t remember any.” To strip an idea down to its core, we must be masters of exclusion. We must relentlessly prioritize. Saying something short is not the mission— sound bites are not the ideal. Proverbs are the ideal. We must create ideas that are both simple and profound. The Golden Rule is the ultimate model of simplicity: a one-sentence statement so profound that an individual could spend a lifetime learning to follow it.
PRINCIPLE 2: UNEXPECTEDNESS
How do we get our audience to pay attention to our ideas, and how do we maintain their interest when we need time to get the ideas across? We need to violate people’s expectations. We need to be counterintuitive. A bag of popcorn is as unhealthy as a whole day’s worth of fatty foods! We can use surprise— an emotion whose function is to increase alertness and cause focus— to grab people’s attention. But surprise doesn’t last. For our idea ...
Why is prioritizing so difficult? In the abstract, it doesn’t sound so tough. You prioritize important goals over less important goals. You prioritize goals that are “critical” ahead of goals that are “beneficial.”
But what if we can’t tell what’s “critical” and what’s“beneficial”? Sometimes it’s not obvious. We often have to make decisions between one “unknown” and another. This kind of complexity can be paralyzing. In fact, psychologists have found that people can be driven to irrational decisions by too much complexity and uncertainty.
In 1954, the economist L. J. Savage6 described what he perceived as a basic rule of human decision-making. He called it the “sure-thing principle.” He illustrated it with this example: A businessman is thinking about buying a piece of property. There’s an election coming up soon, and he initially thinks that its outcome could be relevant to the attractiveness of the purchase. So, to clarify his decision, he thinks through both scenarios. If the Republican wins, he decides, he’ll buy. If the Democrat wins, he’ll do the same. Seeing that he’d buy in either scenario, he goes forward with the purchase, despite not knowing the ...